Departmentof the Treasury
The revised Treasury Seal became official with Treasury Order No. 212, signed by Secretary Henry H. Fowler on January 29, 1968. The seal appears on the face of all United States paper currency.
The cast-iron column capitals in the south, west, and north wings are unique to Treasury. They combine elements of Ionic and Corinthian orders of architecture with federal iconography (the eagle and the hand holding a Treasury key). (Department of the Treasury)
The management of the money resources of the United States has always been the primary function of the Department of the Treasury. Whether it is regulating national banks, determining international economic policy, collecting income and excise taxes, issuing securities, reporting the government’s daily financial transactions, or manufacturing coins or bills for circulation, the one concern that still ties together the activities of the Department of the Treasury is money. Though formally established as an executive department by the First Session of Congress in 1789, many functions of the Department of the Treasury were being carried out even before the signing of the Declaration of Independence thirteen years earlier. Over the decades, the functions of the Department have expanded and grown more sophisticated to meet the needs of a developing nation. Today, the Department of the Treasury remains the premier financial institution of the United States with a full-time agenda of accounting, revenue collection, money production, and economic policy formulation.
The Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. is featured on the reverse of the $10 bill. All United States currency and coinage are produced by the Department of the Treasury.
The history of the Department of the Treasury began in the turmoil of the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress at Philadelphia deliberated the crucial issue of financing a war of independence against Great Britain. The Congress had no power to levy and collect taxes, nor was there a tangible basis for securing funds from foreign investors or governments. The delegates resolved to issue paper money in the form of bills of credit, promising redemption in coin on faith in the revolutionary cause. On June 22, 1775, only a few days after the Battle of Bunker Hill, Congress issued $2 million in bills; on July 25, 28 citizens of Philadelphia were employed by the Congress to sign and number the currency. On July 29, 1775, the Second Continental Congress assigned the responsibility for the administration of the revolutionary government’s finances to Joint Continental Treasurers, George Clymer and Michael Hillegas. The Congress stipulated that each of the colonies contribute to the Continental government’s funds.
(Left) Michael Hillegas, first Treasurer of the United States, 1775- 89. (Right) Robert Morris, Superintendent of Finance, 1781-84. (Bureau of Engraving and Printing)
To ensure proper and efficient handling of the growing national debt in the face of weak economic and political ties between the colonies, the Congress, on February 17, 1776, designated a committee of five to superintend the Treasury, settle the accounts, and report periodically to the Congress. On April 1, a Treasury Office of Accounts, consisting of an Auditor General and clerks, was established to facilitate the settlement of claims and to keep the public accounts for the government of the United Colonies. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the new-born republic as a sovereign nation was able to secure loans from abroad. Despite the infusion of foreign and domestic loans to pay for a war of independence, the United Colonies were unable to establish a wellorganized agency for financial administration. Michael Hillegas was first called Treasurer of the United States on May 14, 1777. The Treasury Office was reorganized three times between 1778 and 1781. The $241.5 million of paper Continental Dollars devalued rapidly.
This $65 Continental note was issued January 14, 1779. The Revolutionary money was printed in various denominations and signed by hand. (University Libraries of Notre Dame)
By May 1781, the dollar collapsed at a rate of from 500 to 1000 to 1 against hard currency. Protests against the worthless money swept the colonies and angry Americans coined the expression “not worth a Continental.” Robert Morris was designated Superintendent of Finance in 1781 and restored stability to the nation’s finances. Morris, a wealthy colonial merchant, was nicknamed “the Financier” because of his reputation for procuring funds or goods on a moment’s notice. His staff included a Comptroller, a Treasurer, a Register, and auditors, who managed the country’s finances through 1784 when Morris resigned because of ill health. The Treasury Board of three Commissioners continued to oversee the finances of the confederation of former colonies until September 1789.
Hamilton and the Establishment of the Department of the Treasury
The First Congress of the United States was called to convene in New York on March 4, 1789, marking the beginning of government under the Constitution. On September 2, 1789, Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be a Department of Treasury, in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Treasury, to be deemed head of the department; a Comptroller, an Auditor, a Treasurer, a Register, and an Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury, which assistant shall be appointed by the said Secretary.
Alexander Hamilton served as the first Secretary of the Treasury from 1789 to 1795. One of the most brilliant statesmen of the early American republic, he was killed in a duel in 1804. (Treasury Collection)
Alexander Hamilton took the oath of office as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. Hamilton had served as George Washington’s aide-de-camp during the Revolution, and was of great importance in the ratification of the Constitution. Because of his financial and managerial acumen, Hamilton was a logical choice for solving the problem of the new nation’s heavy war debt.
Hamilton’s first official act was to submit a report to Congress in which he laid the foundation for the nation’s financial health. To the surprise of many legislators, he insisted upon federal assumption and dollar-for-dollar repayment of the country’s war debt of $75 million in order to revitalize the public credit: “[T]he debt of the United States…was the price of liberty. The faith of America has been repeatedly pledged for it, and with solemnities that give peculiar force to the obligation.” Hamilton foresaw the development of industry and trade in the United States, and suggested that government revenues be based upon customs duties. His sound financial policies also inspired investment in the Bank of the United States, which acted as the government’s fiscal agent.
The original Seal of the Department of the Treasury, designed in 1778. The Latin inscription is an abbreviation for the phrase Thesauri Americae Septentrionalis Sigillum, which means “The Seal of the Treasury of North America.” The seal was simplified in 1968 and now bears the words “The Department of the Treasury” and the date of the Department’s establishment, 1789. (Department of the Treasury)
The Treasury Building
In the first years of the American republic’s existence, the government was quartered in Philadelphia until the new capital city, as authorized in the Constitution, was built on the banks of the Potomac River. In 1800, the government moved to Washington, D.C., and the Department of the Treasury moved into a porticoed Georgian-style building designed by an English architect, George Hadfield. This structure was burned by the British in 1814, but was rebuilt by White House architect James Hoban. This building was identical to three others located on lots adjacent to the White House, each housing one of the four original departments of the U.S. Government: State, War, Treasury, and Navy. The Treasury Building, to the southeast of the White House, was burned by arsonists in 1833 with only the fireproof wing left standing.
View of the east entrance of the first Treasury Building in Washington, 1804. The principal entrance of the building faced south. It was burned to the ground by the British in 1814 and was replaced by an identical structure which was destroyed by fire in 1833. (Department of the Treasury)
The present Treasury Building is a magnificent granite structure in the Greek Revival style; it was built over a period of 33 years between 1836 and 1869. The east and center wings, designed by Robert Mills, architect of the Washington Monument and the Patent Office Building, comprise the first part of the building constructed from 1836 to 1842. The most architecturally impressive feature of the Mills design is the east front colonnade running the length of the building. Each of the 30 columns is 36 feet tall and is carved out of a single block of granite. The interior design of the east and center wings is classically austere, in keeping with the Greek Revival style.
East front of the Main Treasury circa 1865. The 336-foot long colonnade, originally sandstone, was rebuilt with granite in 1908. On the right stands the old State Department building, which was razed in 1866 to make room for the north wing of Main Treasury. (Treasury Collection)
Later additions were made to the original wings, beginning with the construction of the south wing from 1855 to 1860 and the west wing from 1855 to 1864. The preliminary design of the wings was provided by Thomas Ustick Walter, architect of the dome of the U.S. Capitol, but architects Ammi B. Young and Isaiah Rogers refined the plans, designed the interior details, and supervised construction. While the exterior of the building was executed along the lines of the original Mills wings, the interiors of the later wings reflect changes in both building technology and aesthetic tastes. Iron columns and beams reinforced the building’s brick vaults; the architectural detailing became much more ornate, following mid-nineteenth century fashion.
The final addition to the Treasury Building was the north wing, built from 1867 to 1869. Its architect was Alfred B. Mullett, who subsequently designed the State, War, and Navy Building (now the Dwight D. Eisenhower Building) on the other side of the White House. Similar in construction and decor to the south and west wings, the north wing is unique as the site of the Cash Room -- a two-story marble hall in which the daily financial business of the U.S. Government could be transacted. The room was opened in 1869 as the site of President Ulysses S. Grant’s Inaugural Reception. The Treasury is the oldest departmental building in Washington and has had a great impact on the design of other government buildings. At the time of its completion, it was one of the largest office buildings in the world.
Solid granite columns are hoisted into place on the north portico of the Treasury Building, September 16, 1867. (National Archives)
The Inaugural Reception of President Ulysses S. Grant took place in the Treasury Cash Room on March 4, 1869. The event was so crowded that guests had to wait two hours to retrieve their coats. (Treasury Collection)
It served as a barracks for soldiers during the Civil War and as the temporary White House for President Andrew Johnson following the assassination of President Lincoln in 1865.
The Development of the Department
Throughout the decades of American history, the Department of the Treasury has been a dynamic aspect of the government’s service to the people, expanding and developing to accommodate the nation’s needs. While the fiscal and collection functions have remained substantially constant for over two centuries, other incidental operations have varied greatly. Most of the functions assigned to Treasury by the Act of 1789 are still carried out by the Department of the Treasury, although the functions of the Comptroller have been assumed by the Comptroller General of the United States who heads the U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Many functions of the Federal Government, regardless of fiscal significance, were first placed under the jurisdiction of Treasury; other agencies or executive departments have since been created to administer some of these activities. The Postal Service, for example, was supervised by Treasury until 1829; the General Land Office, which was the nucleus of the Department of the Interior, was part of Treasury from 1812 to 1849. Operations associated with business were Treasury activities until the creation of the Department of Commerce and Labor in 1903; and the functions of the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury were eventually established within the General Services Administration in 1949. The oldest seagoing armed service in the United States, the Coast Guard, remained in the Department of the Treasury until its transfer to the Department of Transportation in 1967. Other marine interests were administered by Treasury: the Coast Survey, the Lighthouse Service, and the Marine Hospital Service, from which the Public Health Service, and ultimately, the Department of Health and Human Services grew. The Bureau of Narcotics was part of Treasury until its functions were relocated in the Department of Justice as today’s Drug Enforcement Agency. The Bureau of the Budget, established in Treasury in 1921, was transferred to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and now oversees the spending of federal funds as the Office of Management and Budget.
Following the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, Andrew Johnson used the Secretary’s reception room as a temporary office before moving into the White House. (Treasury Collection)
The interior of the Cash Room where government checks could be cashed as recently as 1976. The walls are made of seven varieties of American and imported marble. (Treasury Collection)
Treasury is an agency that has been sculpted by the history of the nation it serves, though its basic functions, delegated by Congress from powers granted to Congress in the Constitution, remain constant. The Department has adapted to the ever-changing realities of the nation’s development through periodic innovations and reorganizations. The Civil War, for example, had a great effect upon the activities of the Department of the Treasury: the loss of customs revenues from the seceded Southern states resulted in the establishment of the Bureau of Internal Revenue, as well as the printing of paper currency and the
Kill Devil Hills Life-Saving Station, with four crew members. Photo attributed to Wilbur and/or Orville Wright, circa 1902. Life-Saving functions were placed under Treasury by Congress in 1837. The U.S. Life-Saving Service became a separate bureau of the Treasury Department in 1878. In 1915 the Life-Saving Service merged with the Revenue Cutter Service to become the U.S. Coast Guard. The Coast Guard transferred to the Department of Transportation in 1967. (U.S. Coast Guard)
institution of the National Banking System. The growth of international trade after World War I and America’s involvement in World War II demanded an active role by the Department of the Treasury in the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, which established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and the leadership of the United States in promoting worldwide economic development.
This is the only photograph of the world’s first flight in a power driven heavier than air machine, which was invented by Wilbur and Orville Wright. This picture was taken by Surfman John T. Daniels, a member of the crew of the Kill Devil Hills Life- Saving Station, December 17, 1903. Five Treasury employees were the first eyewitnesses to this historic flight. (Library of Congress)
The Department of the Treasury is organized into two major components: the Departmental Offices and the operating bureaus. The Departmental Offices are primarily responsible for the formulation of policy and management of the Department as a whole, while the operating bureaus carry out the specific operations assigned to the Department. The basic functions of the Department of the Treasury include:
• Economic, international economic, and fiscal policy
• Government accounting, cash, and debt management
As the 52nd Secretary of the Treasury (1934- 1945), Henry Morgenthau, Jr. served from the Depression through World War II. During his tenure he served as chairman of the Conference at Bretton Woods (1944) which established the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. (Treasury Collection)
• Promulgation and enforcement of tax and tariff laws
• Assessment and collection of internal revenue
• Production of coin and currency
• Supervision of national banks and thrifts
The Departmental Offices are composed of divisions headed by Assistant Secretaries, a General Counsel, or Inspectors General who report to the Secretary through the Deputy Secretary, the Under Secretary for International Affairs, the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance, or the Under Secretary for the Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence. Most of these divisions are located within the Main Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. The bureaus make up 98% of the Treasury work force, which totals approximately 125,000 people.
A Treasury seal, circa 1800, depicts a watchdog guarding the key to a strongbox. According to legend, the dog is Nero, the first watchdog of the U.S. Mint in 1793. The key and scales are also incorporated in the official Treasury seal. (Department of the Treasury)
The Secretary of the Treasuryserves as a major policy advisor to the President and has primary responsibility for formulating and recommending domestic and international financial, economic, and tax policy, participating in the formulation of broad fiscal policies that have general significance for the economy, and managing the public debt. The Secretary oversees the activities of the Department which serves as the financial agent for the U.S. Government, carries out certain law enforcement responsibilities, and manufactures coins and currency. He also serves as the chief financial officer of the government. The Secretary is a member of the President’s National Economic Council. He is the Chairman and Managing Trustee of the Social Security and Medicare Boards of Trustees. He also serves as U.S. Governor of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter- American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the North American Development Bank.
The Deputy Secretary, established by the Act of May 18, 1972, advises and assists the Secretary in the supervision and direction of the Department and its activities, and acts temporarily for the Secretary in his absence, sickness, or unavailability. The Deputy Secretary plays a primary role in the formulation and execution of Treasury policies and programs in all aspects of the Department’s activities.
The Treasurer of the United States, the only Treasury office older than the Department itself, was established July 29, 1775. The Treasurer was originally charged with the receipt, custody, and disbursement of government funds, though many of these functions have been taken over by a bureau of the Department of the Treasury. The Treasurer’s signature, along with that of the Secretary of the Treasury, is on all U.S. paper currency. The Treasurer also serves as one of the Treasury Department’s principal advisors and spokespersons in the area of financial literacy and education.
On November 25, 2002, President Bush signed the Homeland Security Bill which set into motion many changes for the Department of the Treasury. Under the reorganization of the Department, two of the Treasury’s oldest bureaus, the U.S. Customs Service (1789) and the U.S. Secret Service (1865), as well as the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (1970), were transferred to the Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003. Portions of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (1972) were transferred to the Department of Justice on January 24, 2003.
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 split the functions of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) into two parts. The Act kept alcohol and tobacco excise tax functions and regulations in Treasury under a new bureau and transferred firearms and explosives functions to the Department of Justice. The Treasury Department officially named the new bureau the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) on January 24, 2003. TTB enforces and administers laws covering the 18 production, distribution, and use of alcohol and tobacco products and collects excise taxes on alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and ammunition. As part of Treasury’s Office of Tax Policy, TTB also develops and implements tax policy related to the alcohol and tobacco industries.
TTB’s tax collection duties date back to the beginning of the nation when the first internal revenue law of 1791 taxed both liquor and tobacco. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 tested the government’s authority when western Pennsylvania farmers took up arms against the excise tax. At the urging of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, President George Washington called up federal troops to suppress the rebellion and the new government showed its determination to enforce its revenue laws.
The Alcohol Tax Unit (ATU) was established in the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in 1934. The unit administered internal revenue laws that governed the alcohol industry after the end of Prohibition. In 1951, the IRS transferred tobacco tax functions to ATU and renamed the unit the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division. On July 1, 1972, these tax and regulatory functions were separated from the IRS when Treasury created ATF.
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) was established to regulate the National Banking System by an act of Congress on February 25, 1863. The Office has maintained its bureau status throughout its history. As the administrator of nationally chartered banks, the OCC oversees the execution of laws relating to national banks and promulgates rules and regulations governing the operations of approximately 2,150 national banks. The Comptroller also supervises a nationwide staff of approximately 1,900 bank examiners. Charters, mergers, and establishment of branches of national banks require approval of the Comptroller of the Currency.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
The U.S. Government began printing paper money in 1862, when demand notes and legal tender “greenback” currency were issued to finance the Civil War. On August 29, 1862, one male and four female clerks and the chief of the bureau began work in the basement of the Treasury Building to affix the Treasury seal and cut apart sheets of notes by machinery. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) has no organic act, but the law of July 11, 1862 allowing some of the authorized notes to be engraved and printed at the Treasury is the start of the Bureau. The first legislative recognition of BEP was in the appropriations act of June 20, 1874. The Act of March 3, 1877 made the Bureau the exclusive printer of U.S. currency and securities and in 1894 BEP became the exclusive printer of postage stamps. BEP ceased printing postage stamps in June 2005.
Hugh McCulloch, successful banker, first Comptroller of the Currency, and twice Secretary of the Treasury. (Treasury Collection)
BEP designs, engraves, and prints all U.S. paper currency. In 1996, the Bureau began the production of new designs for our money, the most comprehensive overhaul of the basic currency design since the 1860s and the introduction of the now current small-sized bills in 1929. Early on, the Bureau did other government work. By late 1864, it printed forms for Treasury, engraved passport plates for the State Department, and numbered money orders for the Post Office Department. Some of the other products produced currently by the Bureau include: Presidential appointment certificates, military identification cards, naturalization documents, Small Business Administration financial documents, Coast Guard water use licenses, Presidential portraits, and vignettes of various Washington, D.C. historical buildings.
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) was established in April 1990 by Treasury Order Number 105-08. Its original mission was to provide a government-wide, multi-source intelligence and analytical network to support the detection, investigation, and prosecution of domestic and international money laundering and other financial crimes. FinCEN was made a Treasury bureau by the USA Patriot Act of October 2001.
Printing in the hydraulic pressroom of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in the Treasury Building. Paper money was first issued by the Federal Government in 1861, and first printed by the Bureau in 1862. (Library of Congress)
Today, FinCEN is one of Treasury’s primary agencies to oversee and implement policies to prevent and detect money laundering. This is accomplished in two ways. First, FinCEN works in partnership with the financial community to deter and detect money laundering. FinCEN uses counter-money laundering laws, such as the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), to require reporting and recordkeeping by banks and other financial institutions. This recordkeeping preserves a financial trail for investigators to follow as they track criminals and their assets. The Act also requires reporting suspicious currency transactions which could trigger investigations.
Second, FinCEN provides intelligence and analytical support to law enforcement and works to maximize information sharing among law enforcement agencies. FinCEN’s work is concentrated on combining information reported under the BSA with other government and public information. This information is then disclosed to FinCEN’s customers in the law enforcement community. These reports help them build investigations and plan new strategies to combat money laundering.
Financial Management Service
Responsible for one of the oldest and most basic functions of the Department of the Treasury, the Financial Management Service (FMS) receives and disburses all public monies, maintains government accounts, and prepares daily and monthly reports on the status of government finances. FMS administers the world’s largest collection system.
These functions were originally executed by the Treasurer and the Register of the Treasury. The Office of the Commissioner of Accounts and Deposits was established in 1920, and became part of the Fiscal Service in 1940. The Bureau of Government Financial Operations was established in 1974, and was renamed FMS in 1984. With the name change in 1984, FMS was given broader responsibilities, including lead agency roles for programs to improve cash management systems government-wide.
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is responsible for the determination, assessment, and collection of internal revenue in the United States. This revenue consists of personal and corporate income taxes, excise, estate, and gift taxes, as well as employment taxes for the nation’s Social Security system.
The Bureau of Internal Revenue was established July 1, 1862, to collect the new income tax, which was used to pay for the Civil War. The income tax was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1895, but was reinstated by the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution on February 25, 1913. The Bureau of Internal Revenue was responsible for enforcement of the Prohibition amendment in the 1920s.
Salmon P. Chase, the 25th Secretary of the Treasury, served during the Civil War from 1861 to 1864. Under Chase, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established in 1862. (Treasury Collection)
The Bureau of Internal Revenue was reorganized in 1953 and renamed the Internal Revenue Service. It remains the largest of the Treasury bureaus, employing 110,000 workers nationally.
United States Mint
The Mint was created by Congress on April 2, 1792. President George Washington placed the Mint under the supervision of the Department of State. The Mint became an independent agency in 1799, and by the Coinage Act of 1873 became a bureau of the Treasury Department. The bureau was named the United States Mint in 1984.
The Mint manufactures and ships all U.S. coins for circulation to the Federal Reserve Banks and branches, which issue coins to the public and the business community through depository institutions. The Mint safeguards the Treasury Department’s stored gold and silver and other monetary assets. The Mint also produces and sells gold, silver, and platinum numismatic and commemorative coins and national medals through the American Eagle Bullion Program.
Taxpayers queue up to pay the first national income tax in 1862, which was levied to finance the Civil War. The Internal Revenue Service is the largest Treasury bureau. (Library of Congress)
Mint headquarters is located in Washington, D.C. Mint production facilities are located in Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point. In addition, the Mint is responsible for the U.S. Bullion Depository in Fort Knox, Kentucky, which is the storage facility for the nation’s gold bullion.
Bureau of the Public Debt
Public Debt’s mission is to borrow the money needed to operate the Federal Government and account for the resulting public debt. The Bureau accomplishes its mission of administering the public debt by issuing and servicing U.S. Treasury marketable, savings, and special securities.
The modern bureau evolved from the Register of the Treasury, became the Public Debt Service in 1919 and part of the Fiscal Service in 1940. The Bureau of the Public Debt was delegated Treasury’s operational role under the Government Securities Act of 1986.
From Harper’s Weekly, 1893, “Inside a Treasury Vault in Washington. Taking the Bags of Silver out to be Weighed.”
Office of Thrift Supervision
The Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), the successor to the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, was established by Congress on August 9, 1989 as the primary federal regulator of all federal and state-chartered savings institutions across the nation that belong to the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF). OTS issues federal charters for savings and loan associations and savings banks. This Bureau also adopts and enforces regulations to ensure that both federal and state-chartered thrift institutions operate in a safe and sound manner.
The OTS headquarters is in Washington, D.C. Working out of local offices organized into five regions, OTS staff examine and supervise savings institutions throughout the country.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt buys the first Series E Savings Bond from Secretary Henry Morgenthau on May 1, 1941. (Library of Congress)
1. Alexander Hamilton, New York September 11, 1789 – January 31, 1795 Washington
2. Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Connecticut February 3, 1795 – March 3, 1797 Washington March 4, 1797 – December 31, 1800 J. Adams
3. Samuel Dexter, Massachusetts January 1, 1801 – March 3, 1801 J. Adams March 4, 1801 – May 6, 1801 Jefferson
4. Albert Gallatin, Pennsylvania May 14, 1801 – March 3, 1809 Jefferson March 4, 1809 – February 9, 1814 Madison
5. George W. Campbell, Tennessee February 9, 1814 – September 26, 1814 Madison
6. Alexander J. Dallas, Pennsylvania October 6, 1814 – October 21, 1816 Madison
7. William H. Crawford, Georgia October 22, 1816 – March 3, 1817 Madison March 4, 1817 – March 3, 1825 Monroe
8. Richard Rush, Pennsylvania March 7, 1825 – March 3, 1829 J.Q. Adams
9. Samuel D. Ingham, Pennsylvania March 6, 1829 – June 20, 1831 Jackson
10. Louis McLane, Delaware August 8, 1831 – May 29, 1833 Jackson
11. William J. Duane, Pennsylvania May 29, 1833 – September 23, 1833 Jackson
12. Roger B. Taney, Maryland September 23, 1833 – June 24, 1834 Jackson
13. Levi Woodbury, New Hampshire July 1, 1834 – March 3, 1837 Jackson March 4, 1837 – March 3, 1841 Van Buren
14. Thomas Ewing, Ohio March 5, 1841 – April 4, 1841 W.H. Harrison April 5, 1841 – September 11, 1841 Tyler
15. Walter Forward, Pennsylvania September 13, 1841 – March 1, 1843 Tyler
16. John C. Spencer, New York March 8, 1843 – May 2, 1844 Tyler
17. George M. Bibb, Kentucky July 4, 1844 – March 3, 1845 Tyler March 4, 1845 – March 7, 1845 Polk
18. Robert J. Walker, Mississippi March 8, 1845 – March 3, 1849 Polk March 4, 1849 – March 5, 1849 Taylor
19. William M. Meredith, Pennsylvania March 8, 1849 – July 9, 1850 Taylor July 10, 1850 – July 22, 1850 Fillmore
20. Thomas Corwin, Ohio July 23, 1850 – March 3, 1853 Fillmore March 4, 1853 – March 6, 1853 Pierce
21. James Guthrie, Kentucky March 7, 1853 – March 3, 1857 Pierce March 4, 1857 – March 6, 1857 Buchanan
22. Howell Cobb, Georgia March 7, 1857 – December 8, 1860 Buchanan
23. Philip. F. Thomas, Maryland December 12, 1860 – January 14, 1861 Buchanan
24. John A. Dix, New York January 15, 1861 – March 3, 1861 Buchanan March 4, 1861 – March 6, 1861 Lincoln
25. Salmon P. Chase, Ohio March 7, 1861 – June 30, 1864 Lincoln
26. William P. Fessenden, Maine July 5, 1864 – March 3, 1865 Lincoln
27. Hugh McCulloch, Indiana March 9, 1865 – April 15, 1865 Lincoln April 15, 1865 – March 3, 1869 A. Johnson
28. George S. Boutwell, Massachusetts March 12, 1869 – March 16, 1873 Grant
29. William A. Richardson, Massachusetts March 17, 1873 – June 3, 1874 Grant
30. Benjamin H. Bristow, Kentucky June 4, 1874 – June 20, 1876 Grant
31. Lot M. Morrill, Maine July 7, 1876 – March 3, 1877 Grant March 4, 1877 – March 9, 1877 Hayes
32. John Sherman, Ohio March 10, 1877 – March 3, 1881 Hayes
33. William Windom, Minnesota March 8, 1881 – September 19, 1881 Garfield September, 20, 1881 – November 13, 1881 Arthur
34. Charles J. Folger, New York November 14, 1881 – September 4, 1884 Arthur
35. Walter Q. Gresham, Indiana September 25, 1884 – October 30, 1884 Arthur
36. Hugh McCulloch, Indiana October 31, 1884 – March 3, 1885 Arthur March 4, 1885 – March 7, 1885 Cleveland
37. Daniel Manning, New York March 8, 1885 – March 31, 1887 Cleveland
38. Charles S. Fairchild, New York April 1, 1887 – March 3, 1889 Cleveland March 4, 1889 – March 6, 1889 B. Harrison
39. William Windom, Minnesota March 7, 1889 – January 29, 1891 B. Harrison
40. Charles Foster, Ohio February 25, 1891 – March 3, 1893 B. Harrison March 4, 1893 – March 6, 1893 Cleveland
41. John G. Carlisle, Kentucky March 7, 1893 – March 3, 1897 Cleveland March 4, 1897 – March 5, 1897 McKinley
42. Lyman J. Gage, Illinois March 6, 1897 – September 14, 1901 McKinley September 14, 1901 – January 31, 1902 T. Roosevelt
43. Leslie M. Shaw, Iowa February 1, 1902 – March 3, 1907 T. Roosevelt
44. George B. Cortelyou, New York March 4, 1907 – March 3, 1909 T. Roosevelt March 4, 1909 – March 7, 1909 Taft
45. Franklin MacVeagh, Illinois March 8, 1909 – March 3, 1913 Taft March 4, 1913 – March 5, 1913 Wilson
46. William G. McAdoo, New York March 6, 1913 – December 15, 1918 Wilson
47. Carter Glass, Virginia December 16, 1918 – February 1, 1920 Wilson
48. David F. Houston, Missouri February 2, 1920 – March 3, 1921 Wilson
49. Andrew W. Mellon, Pennsylvania March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923 Harding August 3, 1923 – March 3, 1929 Coolidge March 4, 1929 – February 12, 1932 Hoover
50. Ogden L. Mills, New York February 13, 1932 – March 3, 1933 Hoover
51. William H. Woodin, New York March 4, 1933 – December 31, 1933 F.D. Roosevelt
52. Henry Morgenthau, Jr., New York January 1, 1934 – April 12, 1945 F.D. Roosevelt April 12, 1945 – July 22, 1945 Truman
53. Fred M. Vinson, Kentucky July 23, 1945 – June 23, 1946 Truman
54. John W. Snyder, Missouri June 25, 1946 – January 20, 1953 Truman
55. George M. Humphrey, Ohio January 21, 1953 – July 29, 1957 Eisenhower
56. Robert B. Anderson, Connecticut July 29, 1957 – January 20, 1961 Eisenhower
57. C. Douglas Dillon, New Jersey January 21, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Kennedy November 22, 1963 – April 1, 1965 L.B. Johnson
58. Henry H. Fowler, Virginia April 1, 1965 – December 20, 1968 L.B. Johnson
59. Joseph W. Barr, Indiana December 21, 1968 – January 20, 1969 L.B. Johnson
60. David M. Kennedy, Utah January 22, 1969 – February 11, 1971 Nixon
61. John B. Connally, Texas February 11, 1971 – June 12, 1972 Nixon
62. George P. Shultz, Illinois June 12, 1972 – May 8, 1974 Nixon
63. William E. Simon, New Jersey May 8, 1974 – August 9, 1974 Nixon August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977 Ford
64. W. Michael Blumenthal, Michigan January 23, 1977 – August 4, 1979 Carter
65. G. William Miller, Rhode Island August 6, 1979 – January 20, 1981 Carter
66. Donald T. Regan, New Jersey January 22, 1981 – February 2, 1985 Reagan
67. James A. Baker, III, Texas February 3, 1985 – August 17, 1988 Reagan
68. Nicholas F. Brady, New Jersey September 16, 1988 – January 20, 1989 Reagan January 20, 1989 – January 17, 1993 G.H. Bush
69. Lloyd Bentsen, Texas January 22, 1993 – December 22, 1994 Clinton
70. Robert E. Rubin, New York January 10, 1995 – July 2, 1999 Clinton
71. Lawrence H. Summers, Massachusetts July 2, 1999 – January 20, 2001 Clinton
72. Paul H. O’Neill, Pennsylvania January 30, 2001 – December 31, 2002 G.W. Bush
73. John W. Snow, Virginia February 3, 2003 – June 29, 2006 G.W. Bush
74. Henry M. Paulson, Jr., Illinois July 10, 2006 – G.W. Bush
1. Michael Hillegas, Pennsylvania July 29, 1775 – September 11, 1789
2. Samuel Meredith, Pennsylvania September 11, 1789 – March 3, 1797 Washington March 4, 1797 – March 3, 1801 J. Adams March 4, 1801 – October 31, 1801 Jefferson
3. Thomas T. Tucker, South Carolina December 1, 1801 – March 3, 1809 Jefferson March 4, 1809 – March 3, 1817 Madison March 4, 1817 – March 3, 1825 Monroe March 4, 1825 – May 2, 1828 J.Q. Adams
4. William Clark, Pennsylvania June 4, 1828 – March 3, 1829 J.Q. Adams March 4, 1829 – May 31, 1829 Jackson
5. John Campbell, Virginia May 26, 1829 – March 3, 1837 Jackson March 4, 1837 – July 20, 1839 Van Buren
6. William Selden, Virginia July 22, 1839 – March 3, 1841 Van Buren March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841 W.H. Harrison April 5, 1841 – March 3, 1845 Tyler March 4, 1845 – March 3, 1849 Polk March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850 Taylor July 10, 1850 – November 23, 1850 Fillmore
7. John Sloane, Ohio November 27, 1850 – March 3, 1853 Fillmore March 4, 1853 – April 1, 1853 Pierce
8. Samuel Casey, Kentucky April 4, 1853 – March 3, 1857 Pierce March 4, 1857 – December 22, 1859 Buchanan
9. William C. Price, Missouri February 28, 1860 – March 3, 1861 Buchanan March 4, 1861 – March 21, 1861 Lincoln
10. Francis E. Spinner, New York March 16, 1861 – April 15, 1865 Lincoln April 15, 1865 – March 3, 1869 A. Johnson March 4, 1869 – June 30,1875 Grant
11. John C. New, Indiana June 30, 1875 – July 1, 1876 Grant
12. Albert U. Wyman, Wisconsin July 1, 1876 – March 3, 1877 Grant March 4, 1877 – June 30, 1877 Hayes
13. James Gilfillan, Connecticut July 1, 1877 – March 3, 1881 Hayes March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881 Garfield September 20, 1881 – March 31, 1883 Arthur
14. Albert U. Wyman, Wisconsin April 1, 1883 – March 3, 1885 Arthur March 4, 1885 – April 30, 1885 Cleveland
15. Conrad N. Jordan, New York May 1, 1885 – May 23, 1887 Cleveland
16. James W. Hyatt, Connecticut May 24, 1887 – March 3, 1889 Cleveland
17. James N. Huston, Indiana May 11, 1889 – April 13, 1891 B. Harrison
18. Enos H. Nebecker, Indiana April 25, 1891 – March 3, 1893 B. Harrison March 4, 1893 – May 31, 1893 Cleveland
19. Daniel N. Morgan, Connecticut June 1, 1893 – March 3, 1897 Cleveland March 4, 1897 – June 30, 1897 McKinley
20. Ellis H. Roberts, New York July 1, 1897 – September 14, 1901 McKinley September 14, 1901 – June 30, 1905 T. Roosevelt
21. Charles H. Treat, New York July 1, 1905 – March 3, 1909 T. Roosevelt March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1909 Taft
22. Lee McClung, Tennessee November 1, 1909 – November 21, 1912 Taft
23. Carmi A. Thompson, Ohio November 22, 1912 – March 3, 1913 Taft March 4, 1913 – March 31, 1913 Wilson
24. John Burke, North Dakota April 1, 1913 – January 5, 1921 Wilson
25. Frank White, North Dakota May 2, 1921 – August 2, 1923 Harding August 3, 1923 – May 1, 1928 Coolidge
26. H. Theodore Tate, Tennessee May 31, 1928 – January 17, 1929 Coolidge
27. Walter O. Woods, Kansas January 18, 1929 – March 3, 1929 Coolidge March 4, 1929 – March 3, 1933 Hoover March 4, 1933 – May 31, 1933 F.D. Roosevelt
28. William A. Julian, Ohio June 1, 1933 – April 12, 1945 F.D. Roosevelt April 12, 1945 – May 29, 1949 Truman
29. Georgia Neese Clark, Kansas June 21, 1949 – January 20, 1953 Truman January 20, 1953 – January 27, 1953 Eisenhower
30. Ivy Baker Priest, Utah January 28, 1953 – January 20, 1961 Eisenhower
31. Elizabeth Rudel Smith, California January 31, 1961 – April 13, 1962 Kennedy
32. Kathryn O’Hay Granahan, Pennsylvania January 9, 1963 – November 22, 1963 Kennedy November 22, 1963 – October 13, 1966 L.B. Johnson
33. Dorothy Andrews Elston, Delaware May 8, 1969 – September 17, 1970 Nixon Dorothy Andrews Kabis, Delaware September 17, 1970 – July 3, 1971 Nixon
34. Romana Acosta Banuelos, California December 17, 1971 – February 14, 1974 Nixon
35. Francine Irving Neff, New Mexico June 21, 1974 – August 9, 1974 Nixon August 9, 1974 – January 19, 1977 Ford
36. Azie Taylor Morton, Texas September 12, 1977 – January 20, 1981 Carter
37. Angela Marie Buchanan, District of Columbia March 20, 1981 – July 5, 1983 Reagan
38. Katherine Davalos Ortega, New Mexico September 26, 1983 – January 20, 1989 Reagan January 20, 1989 – July 1, 1989 G.H. Bush
39. Catalina Vasquez Villalpando, Texas December 11, 1989 – January 20, 1993 G.H. Bush
40. Mary Ellen Withrow, Ohio March 1, 1994 – January 20, 2001 Clinton
41. Rosario Marin, California August 16, 2001 – June 30, 2003 G.W. Bush
42. Anna Escobedo Cabral, California January 19, 2005 – G.W. Bush